Scientists probe suspicious rise in CFCs

Ozone-Depleting Chemical Is On The Rise Again But From An Unknown Source

That speculation is due to increased CFC-11 emissions, a big issue that could delay ozone restoration efforts and contribute to a warming planet. This was partly because nations had all agreed to ban or phase out CFCs, which are short for "chlorofluorocarbons" but are simply called "ozone-depleting substances", due to an worldwide treaty back in the 1980s called the Montreal Protocol.

According to global CFC-11 levels measured by scientists at NOAA and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), the concentration of the chemical declined at an accelerating rate till 2002, but then, the fall became stagnant for nearly a decade.

These could hamper the recovery of the ozone hole and worsen climate change. The toxic CFC-11 is completely banned across the globe.

They were also used as propellants in aerosol sprays and in solvents. But with rising emissions, scientists suspect that someone is making a chemical substance in spite of the ban.

Under the Montreal Protocol, the world agreed to begin phasing out CFC-11, ending its production altogether by 2010. As expected, CFC-11 levels have been declining since the chemical was banned and production phased out.

The regulations were initially reflected by the data, with the amounts detected in the atmosphere sinking at a constant rate between 2002 and 2012.

The situation got even worse in the years after 2012 when the rate of CFC decline slowed by 50 percent, which could have only been possible due to an increase in CFC emissions. The increase in emission of CFC-11 appears unrelated to past production; this suggests unreported new production, which is inconsistent with the Montreal Protocol agreement to phase out global CFC production by 2010. Some scientists speculate that the substance is likely being produced in East Asia.

Sens. Burr, Warner: 'No doubt' Russian Federation tried to interfere in 2016 election
His initial explanation of the meeting suggested it was primarily about adoptions, though that explanation quickly fell apart. The employee told the committee that Agalarov "secretly requested" the meeting through a Russian government official.

According to the report, published in Nature and led by Stephen Montzka of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the amount of CFC-11 had gradually been declining over time as countries stopped producing it and what remained in the atmosphere faded out, but its rate of decline sharply decreased over the past year.

The researchers are puzzled as to what the motivation for any unauthorised new production might be.

"It's disappointing, I would not have expected it to happen", said Michaela Hegglin from Reading University, who was not involved in the study. The report also points out that there are alternatives to CFC-11 which are easy to come by and safer to use, so there is no real-world reason to continue using it, making the case all the more perplexing.

"I hope that somehow the global community can put pressure on South East Asian countries, maybe China, to go and look at whether they can get more information on where the emissions come from".

"They're going to find the culprits". If not, it could possibly slow down the recovery of the ozone layer, especially since CFC-11 is responsible for about a quarter of all chlorine reaching the stratosphere.

Watson suggested that aircraft flights might be necessary to better identify the source of the emissions.

Related news:

Hot News

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Donald Tusk condemns Trump administration as 'capricious'
May 17, 2018 - 12:39
Brussels and Tehran have agreed to launch "intensive expert discussions", which have already begun, she said. They tasked experts with coming up with measures for a meeting of their deputies in Vienna next week.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Jets, Golden Knights the big playoff TV draw in Canada
May 17, 2018 - 12:35
Game 2 was a different story, as Vegas clamped down on defense and Marc-Andre Fleury turned away Winnipeg's first 26 shots. Midway through the period, Scheifele had two chances at a hat trick but more importantly, two chances at a tie game.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Whitby Wins Blue Flag Beach Award
May 17, 2018 - 12:33
The findings come as Keep Britain Tidy announces the annual winners of it Blue Flag awards for best beaches and Seaside Awards. The views from Weymouth Beach and the bay are spectacular, stretching across the horizon and taking in the Jurassic Coastline.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Laurel or Yanny, what do you hear?
May 17, 2018 - 12:28
The original poster, user RolandCamry, wrote that he got the clip from the listing for " laurel ". It is the biggest internet debate since the infamous black and blue - or white and gold - dress of 2015.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Antoine Griezmann: Barcelona transfer approved by Diego SImeone after Europa League win
May 17, 2018 - 12:24
Marseille began with urgency, but striker Valere Germain shot over from playmaker Dimitri Payet's slick pass after three minutes. "It will depend on his feelings more than anything else", Gil Marin said after Atletico's Europa League triumph.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Guatemala Follows US, Opens Embassy in Jerusalem
May 17, 2018 - 12:22
Israel considers the entire city its capital, while the Palestinians see east Jerusalem as the capital of their future state. It was the bloodiest day in the Hamas Islamist-run enclave since a 2014 war with Israel .

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Irish ladies lead the way on BAFTA TV Awards red carpet
May 17, 2018 - 12:19
Love Island was awarded the reality & constructed factual award, and mini series went to Three Girls . John Motson was honored with a special award on the same day he retired from sports commentary.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top LeBron James Named Kia NBA Most Valuable Player Finalist
May 17, 2018 - 12:19
James, who at 33 produced one of the best seasons of his outstanding career, is in the running for a 5th career MVP title. The NBA's MVP race is down to just three players and the Pelicans Anthony Davis is in that number.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Scottish Parliament Votes To Oppose Brexit Bill
May 17, 2018 - 12:17
Nicola Sturgeon's government in Edinburgh insists that Holyrood must explicity agree to any changes before they can take effect. Speaking after the vote, he said any move to force legislation on Holyrood would break a "20 year old devolution settlement".

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top VK Singh visits N Korea to discuss growth in peninsula
May 17, 2018 - 12:12
India had said that its trade with North Korea was in any case "minimal" and that it has a "small" embassy in Pyongyang . The visit followed the presentation of credentials by the new Indian Ambassador, Atul Gotsurve, indicating that Mr.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Man United Starting XI Prediction: FA Cup Final vs Chelsea
May 17, 2018 - 12:10
ESPN's Chelsea correspondent Liam Twomey discusses the transfer business needed to turn the club into title contenders again.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Liverpool's Salah receives Golden Boot, becomes Europe's top scorer
May 17, 2018 - 12:08
Perhaps that total is what Salah was thinking of when he was taken off just before Liverpool's fourth, visibly disappointed. He has two weeks to prepare for our biggest game so far It's a massive one, but now I am really looking forward to it.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Messi: Huge blow if Neymar joins Real
May 17, 2018 - 12:08
If the transfer transpires, it will be a hard pill to swallow for Catalan fans and even Lionel Messi is no exception. It is not certain whether Neymar will join Real as the 26-year-old is extremely attached to the Barcelona faithful.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Muslims assured of security during Ramadan
May 17, 2018 - 12:05
The Sultan said that reports of the moon sighting were received from Muslim leaders and organizations across the country. Abubakar made the announcement in a nationwide address at his palace, confirming the sighting of the moon on Wednesday.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Marseille vs. Atletico Madrid in UEFA Europa League final
May 17, 2018 - 12:02
The Spanish side enhanced their fearsome reputation as a front-runner by completely shutting out Rudi Garcia's men. Atletico Madrid celebrate their Europa League victory against Marseille .